Correction: This article was corrected online on May 2, 2016, for errors in tables, author information, and funding.
Study concept and design: Bekelman, Halpern, Blankart, Bynum, Fowler, Kaasa, Melberg, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Oosterveld-Vlug, Schreyögg, Ulrich, Wunsch, Emanuel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Bekelman, Blankart, Bynum, Cohen, Fowler, Kwietniewski, Melberg, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Oosterveld-Vlug, Pring, Schreyögg, Ulrich, Verne, Wunsch, Emanuel.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bekelman, Blankart, Cohen, Fowler, Kwietniewski, Ulrich, Emanuel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bekelman, Halpern, Blankart, Bynum, Cohen, Fowler, Kaasa, Melberg, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Oosterveld-Vlug, Pring, Schreyögg, Ulrich, Verne, Wunsch, Emanuel.
Statistical analysis: Bekelman, Blankart, Bynum, Cohen, Fowler, Kwietniewski, Melberg, Oosterveld-Vlug, Pring, Verne.
Obtained funding: Cohen, Fowler, Melberg, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Schreyögg.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bynum, Fowler, Schreyögg.
Study supervision: Halpern, Cohen, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Schreyögg, Emanuel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Kaasa reports receipt of fees from the Anamorelin Advisory Board (paid to his institution) and majority stock in Eir Solutions. Dr Emanuel reports receipt of speaking fees from numerous companies and organizations and stock ownership in Nuna. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was partially supported by the Commonwealth Fund and the National Institute on Aging (grant P01-AG19783) and National Cancer Institute (grant K07CA163616).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding agencies did not participate in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data; in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the following persons and organizations for assistance with project management and analyses: Belgium: Birgit Gielen (InterMutualist Agency) and Harlinde De Schutter (Belgian Cancer Registry); Canada: Therese Stukel, Craig Earle, and Longdi Fu (Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences) (Mr Fu performed statistical analyses); England: data used with permission of the Health and Social Care Information Centre; Germany: BARMER GEK; the Netherlands: the Netherland Research Center acknowledges that the Netherlands data are based on the authors’ calculations using data files from Statistics Netherlands, which include data of causes of death, and the Hospital Discharge Register (Dutch Hospital Data, Utrecht) linked to the municipal registration (Gemeentelijke Basis Administratie [GBA]), and from the Achmea Health Database; Norway: Anne K. Knutsen, MD, PhD, and Camilla Beck Olsen; United States: Gabrielle Anderson and Harlan Rosen (ICELR project managers), Rebecca Zaha (data analyst). We also acknowledge Michael Mueller, PhD, and Luca Lorenzoni, MSc, of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for helpful counsel on price conversions between countries. None of the contributors named here were additionally or directly compensated for their work on this study.