Study concept and design: Dawes, Maggard-Gibbons, Maher, Shekelle.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dawes, Maggard-Gibbons, Maher, Booth, Miake-Lye, Beroes, Shekelle.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dawes, Maggard-Gibbons, Booth.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dawes, Maher, Booth, Shekelle.
Statistical analysis: Dawes, Booth.
Obtained funding: Shekelle.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dawes, Miake-Lye, Beroes.
Study supervision: Maggard-Gibbons, Shekelle.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: The publication is based on a systematic review conducted by the Evidence-based Synthesis program funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Dawes was supported by the VA Office of Academic Affiliations through the VA/Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program.
Role of the Funder/Sponsors: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors, who are responsible for its contents. The findings and conclusions do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. Therefore, no statement in this article should be construed as the official position of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Livingston, JAMA Deputy Editor, was not involved in the editorial review of or decision to publish this article.
Additional Contributions: We would like to thank the members of our technical expert panel: David E. Arterburn, MD, MPH (Group Health Research Institute), Sarah P. Catanese, PhD (Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine), Edward H. Livingston, MD (JAMA), Matthew L. Maciejewski, PhD (Durham VA Medical Center), James E. Mitchell, MD (University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences), John Morton, MD, MPH (Stanford University School of Medicine), Karen Oliver, PhD (Providence VA Medical Center), Thomas Rutledge, PhD (VA San Diego Healthcare System), and Bruce M. Wolfe, MD (Oregon Health and Sciences University). None of these individuals were compensated in association with their contributions to this article.