†Robert J. O. Davies, MD, is deceased.
Correction: This article was corrected on February 16, 2016, for the mislabeling of the opiates intervention in the Figure 1 flow diagram and on April 19, 2016, for an incorrect number in Figure 2.
Study concept and design: Rahman, Lee, R. Davies, Nunn.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Rahman, Pepperell, Rehal, Saba, Tang, Ali, West, Hettiarachchi, Mukherjee, Samuel, Bentley, Dowson, Miles, Ryan, Yoneda, Chauhan, Corcoran, Psallidas, Wrightson, Hallifax, H. Davies, Lee, Hedley, Dobson, Seaton, Russell, Chapman, McFadyen, Shaw, Maskell, Nunn, Miller, Crosthwaite.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rahman, Pepperell, Rehal, Saba, Bentley, H. Davies, Hedley, Dobson, Seaton, Russell, Chapman, McFadyen, Shaw, Nunn, Miller, Crosthwaite.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rahman, Pepperell, Rehal, Tang, Ali, West, Hettiarachchi, Mukherjee, Samuel, Bentley, Dowson, Miles, Ryan, Yoneda, Chauhan, Corcoran, Psallidas, Wrightson, Hallifax, H. Davies, Lee, R. Davies, Maskell, Nunn, Miller.
Statistical analysis: Rahman, Rehal, Wrightson, Nunn.
Obtained funding: Rahman, R. Davies.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rahman, Pepperell, Tang, Mukherjee, Bentley, Yoneda, Psallidas, Wrightson, H. Davies, Dobson, Shaw.
Study supervision: Bentley, Dowson, Wrightson, Lee, Dobson, Seaton, R. Davies, Maskell, Nunn, Miller.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Miles reports receipt of fees for educational meetings sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, Meda, Pfizer, and Chiesi. Dr Lee reports advisory board membership for CareFusion and Sequana Medical and receipt of equipment from Rocket Ltd for a clinical trial. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was funded by grant G0600475 from the UK Medical Research Council. Dr Rahman is funded by the UK Medical Research Council and the UK National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Programme.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: None of the funders had any influence on design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: TIME1 Trial Group Investigators and Recruiting Centers: J. Pepperell, Taunton and Summerset Hospital NHS Trust, United Kingdom; N. M. Rahman, Oxford University Hospitals Trust, United Kingdom; T. Saba and A. Tang, Blackpool, Fylde and Wyre Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; N. Ali, Kingsmill Hospital, Mansfield, United Kingdom; A. West and G. Hettiarachchi, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, United Kingdom; D. Mukerjee and J. Samuel, Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital, United Kingdom; A. Bentley, University Hospital South Manchester NHS Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom; L. Dowson, Royal Wolverhampton Hospital NHS Trust, United Kingdom; J. Miles, Rotherham General Hospital, United Kingdom; F. Ryan, Vancouver Coastal Health, British Columbia, Canada; K. Yoneda, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, Sacramento; A. Chauhan, Portsmouth Hospital, United Kingdom; A. Leonard, Conquest Hospital, Hastings, United Kingdom; S. Fowler, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, United Kingdom; A. Ionescu, Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, United Kingdom; J. Kastelik, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, United Kingdom. Steering committee: N. M. Rahman (chief investigator), J. Pepperell (key investigator), N. A. Maskell (key investigator), Y. C. G. Lee (key investigator), A. West (key investigator), A. J. Nunn (senior trial statistician), S. Rehal (trial statistician), E. L. Hedley (trial administrator), R. Shaw (trial administrator), D. Seaton (independent member), R. F. Miller (independent chair). Independent data monitoring committee: M. Quigley (statistician), T. E. A. Peto (clinician), D. Geddes (chair). Radiograph scoring: J. Corcoran, R. Hallifax, H. Davies, I. Psallidas, J. Wrightson. Blinded end-point assessment: R. F. Miller. Data analysis: B. C. Kahan, MSc, D. Bratton, MSc, S. Rehal, A. J. Nunn. Manuscript writing group: N. M. Rahman, J. Pepperell, S. Rehal, A. J. Nunn, N. A. Maskell, R. F. Miller.
Additional Contributions: We thank Eleanor Mishra, MD (Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit), and Anna Bara (UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London) for their support in organizational and recruitment aspects. No compensation was received by these individuals specifically for these contributions.