Published Online: December 5, 2015. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13977.
Study concept and design: Dhabangi, Cserti-Gazdewich, Ddungu, Opoka, Stowell, Dzik.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dhabangi, Ainomugisha, Cserti-Gazdewich, Kyeyune, Musisi, Opoka, Stowell, Dzik.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ainomugisha, Cserti-Gazdewich, Stowell, Dzik.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dhabangi, Cserti-Gazdewich, Ddungu, Kyeyune, Musisi, Opoka, Stowell, Dzik.
Statistical analysis: Dzik.
Obtained funding: Stowell, Dzik.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dhabangi, Ainomugisha, Cserti-Gazdewich, Ddungu, Kyeyune, Musisi, Opoka, Stowell, Dzik.
Study supervision: Dhabangi, Cserti-Gazdewich, Opoka, Stowell, Dzik.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Stowell reports serving on the scientific review committee for Haemonetics Corporation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was fully funded by grant 1R21HL109518-01A1 from the National Institutes of Health. Nonin Corporation supplied the equipment used for noninvasive cerebral oxygen measurements.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Annet Akiror, Joan Adyek, and John Kasirye (all from Uganda National Blood Transfusion Service) for blood collection and processing; Judith Mutesi, Robinah Asaba, Eva Kagoya, and Sophie Chemutai (all from Mulago Hospital, Kampala) for patient care services; Samuel Nsobya, PhD (Makerere University–UCSF Research Collaboration), for laboratory assays; David Mpiima (Uganda Cancer Institute) for laboratory assays; Esther N. Ssebyala (Global Health Uganda, Kampala) for administrative support; Eileen Selogie (eNet Solutions) for database support; Sarah Kiguli-Walube, MD (Makerere University), for administrative support; Henry Ddungu, MD, Jane Achan, MD, and Albert Maganda (all from the data and safety monitoring board). These contributors received compensation according to their usual salary for their contributions.