Not everyone agrees that screening for prostate cancer should be done. When a cancer is found, its treatment may require removal or radiation treatment of the prostate gland. Both surgery and radiation treatment can have complications and side effects. Another alternative is active surveillance—when prostate cancer is found, instead of removal, it is carefully watched to see if it grows or becomes aggressive. Because it is not possible to know which prostate cancers are dangerous, some patients undergo these treatments when they do not need them. However, if no screening is done, there is a risk of missing high-risk prostate cancers that could be treated before they become life threatening. Also, some high-risk cancers will cause death regardless of early detection and treatment. Many scientific studies have been done, but it is still unclear if screening for prostate cancer is good for average-risk men. Patients should educate themselves about these facts and discuss the options with their doctor.