Study concept and design: Asch, Troxel, Stewart, Jones, Rosenthal, Volpp.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Asch, Troxel, Stewart, Sequist, Jones, Hirsch, Hoffer, Zhu, Wang, Hodlofski, Frasch, Weiner, Finnerty, Gangemi, Volpp.
Drafting of the manuscript: Asch, Troxel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Troxel, Zhu, Wang.
Obtained funding: Asch, Volpp.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Asch, Sequist, Jones, Hirsch, Hoffer, Hodlofski, Weiner, Finnerty, Gangemi, Volpp.
Study supervision: Asch, Stewart, Sequist, Jones, Hoffer, Frasch, Volpp.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Asch and Volpp reported being principals and owners of VAL Health. Dr Troxel reported serving on the scientific advisory board of VAL Health. Dr Jones reported having received grants from Geisinger Health System, Merck, AstraZeneca, Genentech, and the National Association of Chain Drug Stores, and other support from the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Dr Volpp reported having served as a consultant for CVS Caremark and having received grants from CVS Caremark, Humana, Merck, Weight Watchers, Discovery (South Africa). No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study received support from the National Institute on Aging (RC4 AG039114 to Drs Asch and Volpp).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Ronald Barg, MD, and Charles F. Orellana, MD (University of Pennsylvania), Thomas R. Graff, MD (Chartis Group), and Thomas Isaacs, MD (Atrius Health), for help fielding this study. We also thank Constantine Gatsonis, PhD (Brown University), Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM (Northwestern University), and Eugene Z. Oddone, MD, MHS (Duke University), for their service on the study’s data and safety monitoring board. All but Dr Orellana received compensation for this assistance.