Gun-related suicide in the United States is an important public health issue and demands a robust, evidence-based public health response. More research is needed to inform and accelerate suicide prevention efforts. This agenda aligns with the respective missions of the NIMH and the CDC, but not with current funding priorities and allocations. Research is needed on the effects of public health interventions, policies, laws, and implementation strategies, thereby enabling (1) more effective identification of persons at risk of suicide, (2) more effective approaches to limiting their access to lethal means—firearms, in particular—during times of risk, and (3) development of ways to appropriately balance risk and rights, without further stigmatizing people with mental illnesses or inhibiting their disclosure of suicidal ideation. The NIMH and the CDC should lead the way by investing in research on the best means to do that, and Congress should allocate funding accordingly.