Study concept and design: Wechsler, Yawn, Fuhlbrigge, Pace, Israel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wechsler, Yawn, Fuhlbrigge, Raby, Lanzillotti, Israel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wechsler, Yawn, Fuhlbrigge, Pace, Pencina, Doros, Kazani, Raby, Lanzillotti, Madison, Israel.
Statistical analysis: Wechsler, Pencina, Doros, Kazani, Raby, Israel.
Obtained funding: Wechsler, Fuhlbrigge, Israel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wechsler, Yawn, Fuhlbrigge, Pace, Kazani, Raby, Lanzillotti, Madison, Israel.
Study supervision: Wechsler, Yawn, Fuhlbrigge, Pace, Kazani, Lanzillotti, Israel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Wechsler reports receiving grant funding from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); honoraria from Merck; and consultant fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Teva, Sunovion, NKT Therapeutics, Asthmatx/Boston Scientific, Genzyme, MAP Pharma, Genentech, Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck, Cytos, Regeneron, Vectura, Ambit Bioscience, Sanofi, AstraZeneca, Genentech, Meda, Mylan, and MedImmune. Dr Yawn reports receiving asthma research funding from National Institutes of Health (NIH) and serving on the advisory board for AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Pulmone, and AstraZeneca. Dr Fuhlbrigge reports consulting for the design and analysis of epidemiologic studies for Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Merck, AstraZeneca, and GlaxoSmithKline; serving on a respiratory specialist advisory panel for Merck and GlaxoSmithKline and on the Respiratory Measurement Advisory Panel for the National Committee for Quality Assurance; being a member of the Joint Adjudication Committee for ICON Medical Imaging and cochair for the Asthma Exacerbations subcommittee for the Asthma Outcomes Workshop sponsored by the NHLBI; and receiving funding from the NIH. Dr Pace reports receiving grant funding from Sanofi and Mallinckrodt; supporting research design for a study from Genova Diagnostics; consulting for Nova Nordisk; and owning stock in Pfizer, Abbott, Merck, Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, and Amgen. Dr Pencina reports receiving personal fees from Aeris Therapeutics. Dr Doros reports receiving financial support from Harvard Clinical Research Institute. Dr Kazani reports being employed by the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research. Dr Raby reports receiving royalties from UpToDate in his role as genetics section editor. Ms Lanzillotti reports receiving grant funding from Harvard Clinical Research Institute. Dr Israel reports receiving consultant fees from Cowen and Company, Infinity Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Novartis, Phillips Respironics, Merck, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Teva Specialty Pharmaceuticals, and Johnson and Johnson; institutional grant funding from Amgen and i3 Research (Biota); grant funding from Genentech, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Sunovion, and Teva Specialty Pharmaceuticals; speaker bureau funding from Merck; royalties from UpToDate; being a member of the data and safety monitoring board for Novartis; giving expert testimony for Campbell Trial Lawyers, Fox Rothschild, Ficksman and Conley, Ryan Ryan Deluca, and Crammer, Bishop, and O’Brien; and meeting expense funding from Teva Specialty Pharmaceuticals and Research in Real Life. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant R01HS019408 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: AHRQ approved the design and conduct of the study and provided funding, but played no role in collection, management, analysis or interpretation of the data, nor was it involved in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
Group Information: BELT investigators were Asif Ansari, MD, Donald Raum, MD, Manuja Marthur, MD (Montefiore Medical Group); Pedro Avila, MD (Northwestern University); James E. Bailey, MD (University of Tennessee); William J. Calhoun, MD (University of Texas); Ku-Lang Chang, MD (University of Florida); Mario Coto, MD (Coto and Associates); Cedrice Davis, MD (Urban Family Practice); Rosalind Dawson, MD, and M. LaFrance Ferguson, MD ( both from Beaufort Jasper Hampton Comprehensive Health Services); Mark T. Dransfield, MD (University of Alabama); Frances Ferguson, MD (Albany Area Primary Health Care); Allen Greiner, MD (University of Kansas); Ahmad Jingo, MD (RST Data Research); Shamsah Kazani, MD (Brigham and Women’s Hospital); William Pankey, MD (Swope Parkway Health Center); Martin Schear, MD (Dayton Clinical Research).
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the AHRQ.
Previous Presentations: Presented at American Thoracic Society Meeting; May 18, 2014; San Diego, California.
Additional Contributions: We thank the patients and their families who participated in these studies, the site coordinators, Brian Manning, MPH (American Academy of Family Physicians), the staff at Olmsted Medical Center and at Harvard Clinical Research Institute, especially Floni Bajraktari, MS, senior data manager, and Katy Agule, BA, program manager. These contributors received no compensation apart from usual salary for their contributions.