Study concept and design: Han, Compton, Jones.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Han, Compton, Jones.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Han, Jones, Cai.
Study supervision: Han.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Compton reported owning stock in General Electric Co, 3M Co, and Pfizer Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was jointly sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the US Food and Drug Administration. The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were supported by contracts from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Role of the Funder/Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The sponsors reviewed and approved the manuscript.
Disclaimers: The findings and conclusions of this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Food and Drug Administration, or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
Additional Contributions: We thank Peter Lurie, MD, MPH, of the Food and Drug Administration, Neil Russell, PhD, Art Hughes, MS, and Kathryn Piscopo, PhD, of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Wenxing Zha, PhD, of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for their comments. None of them received compensation for their roles in this study.