Published Online: October 8, 2015. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13134.
Study concept and design: Abegglen, Waddell, Bhaskara, Maley, Schiffman.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Abegglen, Caulin, Chan, Lee, Robinson, Campbell, Kiso, Schmitt, Waddell, Jensen, Schiffman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Abegglen, Caulin, Chan, Maley, Schiffman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Abegglen, Lee, Robinson, Campbell, Kiso, Schmitt, Waddell, Bhaskara, Jensen, Maley, Schiffman.
Statistical analysis: Abegglen, Caulin, Chan, Waddell, Jensen
Obtained funding: Schmitt, Waddell, Maley, Schiffman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Campbell, Kiso, Schmitt, Waddell, Bhaskara, Maley, Schiffman.
Study supervision: Maley, Schiffman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Abegglen and Schiffman report a patent pending on use of elephant TP53 to prevent or treat cancer. Dr Waddell reports receipt of grants from the National Institutes of Health. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by US Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-97ER25308 and National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA91955, R01 CA149566, R01 CA170595, R01 CA185138, and R01 CA140657, R01 LM008626, and Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs’ Breast Cancer Research Program award BC132057. The Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) Nuclear Control Program provided pilot support through the Cancer Center Support Grant, and National Cancer Institute grant CA24014 supported HCI core facilities. This research was made possible through funding from Soccer for Hope, Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey Circus (Feld Entertainment), and the Primary Children’s Hospital (PCH) Pediatric Cancer Research Program, supported by the Intermountain Healthcare Foundation and the PCH Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings, opinions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the universities where the research was performed or the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the collaboration of the Hogle Zoo (Salt Lake City, Utah), the Oakland Zoo (Oakland, California), and the Ringing Bros Center for Elephant Conservation (Polk City, Florida) and recognize the assistance of the following in obtaining samples from elephants: Eric Peterson, AD (Hogle Zoo), Lauren LeCoque, BS (Hogle Zoo), and Jeff Kinzley, BS (Oakland Zoo). We thank the following at the University of Utah for technical and analytical assistance: Bella Johnson, BA, Marcus Vranes, BS, Kiera Jorgensen, Sharanya Raghunath, PhD, Clint Mason, PhD, and Jamie Gardiner, BS. We recognize the following for helpful experimental discussions: Douglas Brash, PhD (Yale University) and Bradley Cairns, PhD (University of Utah). We acknowledge Kenneth Jahan for help with compiling cancer incidence data from the San Diego Zoo, and we thank George Church, PhD (Harvard University), for providing the African elephant fibroblasts. We acknowledge the Genome Analysis Core at the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Genomics Core Facility at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Utah’s Flow Cytometry, DNA Sequencing, and High-Throughput Genomics Core Facilities. None of these individuals were compensated for their contributions except for Core Facilities.