JAMA. 1927;88(6):404-405. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02680320040013.
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The classic experiments of the English physiologist Sydney Ringer, toward the end of the last century, on the frog heart showed the importance that relatively small changes in a perfusing solution may have on the function of this organ. Previous to that time, tissues had been maintained active extravitally by being bathed in physiologic sodium chloride solution. Ringer's researches demonstrated the importance of calcium salts in the process. Ringer's solution, widely used in physiologic experimentation and subsequently in clinical work, contains a mixture of salts of sodium, potassium and calcium. A recent writer1 has pointed out how the brilliant researches of Ringer, Hardy, Moore, Loeb, Höber and others have shown that those inorganic elements play a vitally important part in all physiologic processes, and that the hidden mysteries of cell life which are slowly being unraveled are intimately connected with their activities. The fundamental facts revealed by these workers


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