Against this global burden, cardiovascular medicine continues to advance rapidly. New drugs, like the PCSK9 inhibitors for hypercholesterolemia and sacubitril for heart failure, and new technological advances, like transcatheter aortic valve replacement, offer the promise of improving care, outcomes, and quality of life for patients with and at risk for cardiovascular disease. Understanding of the morbidity associated with undiagnosed conditions, such as hypertension and atrial fibrillation, is beginning to emerge, and new insights into treatment goals and new technologies and devices provide opportunities for earlier identification and intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease.4,5 The anticipated benefit from stem-cell and other regenerative therapies remains unrealized, but promising research continues.6,7 Yet at the same time, the marked increases in obesity and diabetes, coupled with changing nutritional and lifestyle patterns worldwide, are likely to exacerbate the ongoing cardiovascular disease epidemic. Moreover, cardiovascular medicine is not without its controversies. For the past few years, the “statin debates” have raged on both sides of the Atlantic.8,9 Targets for preventive therapies, the appropriate use of expensive new therapies such as PCSK9 inhibitors, indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement among elderly patients with advanced comorbidities as well as among patients at low surgical risk, and the role of the polypill in global risk reduction all remain controversial topics.