Published Online: September 21, 2015. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.9566.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Disclaimer: The views in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies or views of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation.
Additional Contributions: We thank Thomas Farley, MD, MPH (Public Good Projects), Joshua Sharfstein, MD (Johns Hopkins University), Marc Gourevitch, MD, MPH (New York University Langone Medical Center), and Sandro Galea, MD, DrPH (Boston University School of Public Health), for their insightful comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. None of these individuals were compensated for their contributions.