Study concept and design: Stoll, Poindexter, Devaskar, Higgins.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Stoll, Hansen, Bell, Walsh, Carlo, Shankaran, Laptook, Sanchez, Van Meurs, Wyckoff, Das, Hale, Ball, Newman, Schibler, Poindexter, Kennedy, Cotten, Watterberg, D’Angio, DeMauro, Truog, Higgins.
Drafting of the manuscript: Stoll, Hansen, Laptook, Van Meurs, Wyckoff.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bell, Walsh, Carlo, Shankaran, Sanchez, Van Meurs, Wyckoff, Das, Hale, Ball, Newman, Schibler, Poindexter, Kennedy, Cotten, Watterberg, D’Angio, DeMauro, Truog, Devaskar, Higgins.
Statistical analysis: Stoll, Hansen, Das.
Obtained funding: Stoll, Bell, Walsh, Shankaran, Sanchez, Schibler, Poindexter, Truog.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stoll, Bell, Carlo, Shankaran, Wyckoff, Ball, Newman, Schibler, Higgins.
Study supervision: Stoll, Shankaran, Wyckoff, Das, Schibler, Kennedy, Higgins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. No disclosures were reported.
Group Information: Dr Stoll, principal investigator (PI), Emory University; oversaw enrollment (2146 infants in this study). Dr Bell, PI, University of Iowa; oversaw enrollment at the site (546 infants). Dr Walsh, PI, Case Western Reserve University; oversaw enrollment (1857 infants). Dr Carlo, PI, University of Alabama at Birmingham; oversaw enrollment (2632 infants). Dr Shankaran, PI, Wayne State University; oversaw enrollment (2317 infants). Dr Laptook, PI, Brown University; oversaw enrollment (2221 infants). Dr Sánchez, PI, Nationwide Children’s Hospital; oversaw enrollment (206 infants). Dr Van Meurs, PI, Stanford University; oversaw enrollment (1400 infants). Dr Wyckoff, PI. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; oversaw enrollment (2141 infants). Dr Das, PI, Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Data Coordinating Center. Ms Hale, research coordinator, Emory University; enrolled 2146 infants. Ms Ball, research coordinator, Stanford University; enrolled 1400 infants. Ms Newman, research coordinator, Case Western Reserve University; enrolled 1857 infants. Dr Schibler, PI, University of Cincinnati; oversaw enrollment (3496 infants). Dr Poindexter, PI, Indiana University; oversaw enrollment (2658 infants). Dr Kennedy, PI, University of Texas Medical School at Houston; oversaw enrollment (2038 infants). Dr Cotton, PI, Duke University; oversaw enrollment (1288 infants). Dr Watterberg, PI, University of New Mexico; oversaw enrollment (871 infants). Dr D’Angio, PI, University of Rochester; oversaw enrollment (666 infants). Dr DeMauro, site investigator, University of Pennsylvania; oversaw enrollment (218 infants). Dr Truog, PI, Children's Mercy Hospital; oversaw enrollment (83 infants). Dr Devaskar, PI, University of California—Los Angeles; oversaw enrollment (47 infants). Dr Higgins, program scientist for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) NRN; helped develop the protocol, oversaw compliance, and assisted with data edits from the sites. Members of the Generic Database Subcommittee include Drs Stoll (chair), Bell, Walsh (vice chair) Carlo, Shankaran, Laptook, Sánchez, Wyckoff, Das, and Higgins; and Mss Hale, Ball, and Newman.We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study. The following investigators, in addition to those listed as authors, participated in this study: NRN Steering Committee Chairs: Alan H. Jobe, MD, PhD, University of Cincinnati (2003-2006); Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (2006-2011); Richard A. Polin, MD, Division of Neonatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, (2011-present). Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904): Martin Keszler, MD; William Oh, MD; Angelita M. Hensman, MS, RNC-NIC, BSN; Kristen Angela, RN; Kristin Basso, RN, MaT. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (U10 HD34167): Ann R. Stark, MD; Kerri Fournier, RN. Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital (U10 HD21364, M01 RR80): Anna Marie Hibbs, MD; Avroy A. Fanaroff, MD. Children's Mercy Hospital (U10 HD68284): Eugenia K. Pallotto, MD, MSCE; Howard W. Kilbride, MD; Cheri Gauldin, RN, BS, CCRC; Anne Holmes, RN, MSN, MBA-HCM, CCRC; Kathy Johnson, RN, CCRC. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, and Good Samaritan Hospital (U10 HD27853, M01 RR8084, UL1 TR77): Suhas G. Kallapur, MD; Edward F. Donovan, MD; Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC; Barbara Alexander, RN; Kate Bridges, MD; Jody Hessling, RN; Holly L. Mincey, RN, BSN; Marcia Worley Mersmann, RN, CCRC. Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, University of North Carolina, and Duke Regional Hospital (U10 HD40492, UL1 TR1117, M01 RR30, UL1 TR1111): Ronald N. Goldberg, MD; Joanne Finkle, RN, JD; Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC, IBCLC; Kathy J. Auten, MSHS; Katherine A. Foy, RN; Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN, MSN; Gloria Siaw, BSN, CRA; Matthew M. Laughon, MD, MPH; Carl L. Bose, MD; Janice Bernhardt, MS, RN; Gennie Bose, RN. Emory University, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (U10 HD27851, M01 RR39, UL1 TR454): David P. Carlton, MD; Ravi M. Patel, MD; Yvonne Loggins, RN; Ellen Hale, RN. Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD: Linda L. Wright, MD; Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA. Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, and Eskenazi Health (U10 HD27856, M01 RR750, UL1 TR6): Greg Sokol, MD; James A. Lemons, MD; Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC; Diana D. Appel, RN, BSN; Faithe Hamer, BS; Dianne E. Herron, RN; Lucy C. Miller, RN, BSN, CCRC. Nationwide Children’s Hospital and The Ohio State University Medical Center (U10 HD68278): Leif D. Nelin, MD; Sudarshan R. Jadcherla, MD; Patricia Luzader, RN; Christine A. Fortney, PhD, RN; Bronte Clifford, BA; Melanie Stein, BBA, RRT; Erin Wishloff, RRT; Amanda Daubenmire, BS; Karen Leonhart, BS; Julie Gutentag, RN, BSN; Tiffany Sharp, CMOA; Courtney Cira, BS, RRT, MBA; Lina Yousef, MD; Pamela Moorehead, BS; Rox Ann Sullivan, RN, BSN. RTI International (U10 HD36790): Dennis Wallace, PhD; Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN, BSN, CCRP; Margaret M. Crawford, BS, CCRP; Jenna Gabrio, BS, CCRP; Betty K. Hastings; Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd; Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS; Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS, CCRP; W. Kenneth Poole, PhD. Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (U10 HD27880, M01 RR70, UL1 TR93): David K. Stevenson, MD; Marian M. Adams, MD; Andrew W. Palmquist, RN, BSN; Melinda S. Proud, RCP. Tufts Medical Center, Floating Hospital for Children (U10 HD53119, M01 RR54): Ivan D. Frantz III, MD; Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC; Ellen Nylen, RN, BSN. University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children’s Hospital of Alabama (U10 HD34216, M01 RR32): Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD; Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd; Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN. University of California—Los Angeles, Mattel Children's Hospital, Santa Monica Hospital, Los Robles Hospital and Medical Center, and Olive View Medical Center (U10 HD68270): Meena Garg, MD; Teresa Chanlaw, MPH; Rachel Geller, RN, BSN. University of California—San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women (U10 HD40461): Neil D. Finer, MD; Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD; Paul R. Wozniak, MD; Wade Rich, BSHS, RRT; Kathy Arnell, RNC; Clarence Demetrio, RN; Christopher Henderson, AS, CRTT. University of Iowa and Mercy Medical Center (U10 HD53109, M01 RR59, UL1 TR442): Tarah T. Colaizy, MD, MPH; John A. Widness, MD; Dan L. Ellsbury, MD; Karen J. Johnson, RN, BSN; Donia B. Campbell, RNC-NIC. University of Miami, Holtz Children's Hospital (U10 HD21397, M01 RR16587): Shahnaz Duara, MD; Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN MSN. University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (U10 HD53089, U10 HD27881, M01 RR997, UL1 TR41): Robin K. Ohls, MD; Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN. University of Pennsylvania, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (U10 HD68244): Barbara Schmidt, MD, MSc; Haresh Kirpalani, MB, MSc; Aasma S. Chaudhary, BS, RRT; Toni Mancini, RN, BSN, CCRC; Dara M. Cucinotta, RN. University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children's Hospital, and the University of Buffalo Women's and Children's Hospital of Buffalo (U10 HD68263, U10 HD40521, M01 RR44, UL1 TR42): Dale L. Phelps, MD; Ronnie Guillet, MD, PhD; Satyan Lakshminrusimha, MD; Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC; Holly I.M. Wadkins; Michael G. Sacilowski, BS; Erica Burnell, RN; Ashley Williams, MSEd. University of Tennessee Health Science Center (U10 HD21415): Sheldon B. Korones, MD; Tina Hudson, RN, BSN. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health & Hospital System, and Children's Medical Center Dallas (U10 HD40689, M01 RR633): Luc P. Brion, MD; Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD; Walid A. Salhab, MD; Diana M. Vasil, RNC-NIC; Alicia Guzman; Gaynelle Hensley, RN; Melissa H. Leps, RN; Nancy A. Miller, RN. University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (U10 HD21373): Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH; Georgia E. McDavid, RN; Esther G. Akpa, RN, BSN; Beverly Foley Harris, RN, BSN; Claudia I. Franco, RNC, MSN; Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN; Sara C. Martin, RN, BSN; Patricia Ann Orekoya, RN, BSN; Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP; Maegan C. Simmons, RN. University of Utah Medical Center, Intermountain Medical Center, LDS Hospital, and Primary Children's Medical Center (U10 HD53124, M01 RR64, UL1 TR105): Roger G. Faix, MD; Bradley A. Yoder, MD; Karen A. Osborne, RN, BSN, CCRC; Jennifer J. Jensen, RN, BSN; Cynthia Spencer, RNC; Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, RN, BSN. Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Brenner Children's Hospital, and Forsyth Medical Center (U10 HD40498, M01 RR7122): T. Michael O’Shea, MD, MPH; Robert G. Dillard, MD; Nancy J. Peters, RN, CCRP. Wayne State University, University of Michigan, Hutzel Women’s Hospital, and Children’s Hospital of Michigan (U10 HD21385): Beena G. Sood, MD, MS; Athina Pappas, MD; John Barks, MD; Rebecca Bara, RN, BSN; Maria Batts, RRT; Elizabeth Billian, RN, MBA; Shelley Hendel, AD; Kimberly Hayes-Hart, RN, MSN, NNP-BC; Mary E. Johnson, RN, BSN; Geraldine Muran, RN, BSN; Carolyn Rosman, RN; Kara Sawaya, RN, BSN; Laura Sumner, RN, BSN; Mary Christensen, RT; Stephanie A. Wiggins, MS. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital (U10 HD27871, M01 RR6022, UL1 TR142): Richard A. Ehrenkranz, MD; Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN; Matthew Bizzarro, MD; Patricia Gettner, RN; JoAnn Poulsen, RN; Janet Taft, RN, BSN; Joanne Williams, RN, BSN.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD, the National Center for Research Resources, and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences provided grant support for the NRN Generic Database Study to maintain a high-risk preterm infant registry through cooperative agreements.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NICHD staff had input into the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
Additional Contributions: Participating NRN sites collected data and transmitted it to RTI International, the data coordinating center for the network, which stored, managed, and analyzed the data for this study.