Study concept and design: Sink, Espeland, Church, Guralnik, Hendrie, Jennings, Katula, McDermott, Pahor, Reid, Verghese, Rapp, Williamson.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sink, Espeland, Castro, Church, Cohen, Dodson, Guralnik, Hendrie, Jennings, Katula, Lopez, McDermott, Pahor, Reid, Rushing, Verghese, Williamson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sink, Espeland, Cohen, Hendrie, Katula, Lopez, Reid, Rushing, Williamson.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Sink, Espeland, Castro, Church, Cohen, Dodson, Guralnik, Hendrie, Jennings, Katula, McDermott, Pahor, Reid, Verghese, Rapp, Williamson.
Statistical analysis: Espeland, Jennings, Rushing.
Obtained funding: Espeland, Church, Guralnik, McDermott, Pahor, Verghese, Williamson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Cohen, Guralnik, Jennings, Katula, Pahor, Reid, Verghese, Rapp, Williamson.
Study supervision: Sink, Church, Guralnik, Hendrie, Katula, Lopez, McDermott, Pahor, Reid, Williamson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Sink reported receiving grant funding from the National Institute on Aging for several Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative studies; and grant funding from Navidea while serving as a primary investigator. Dr Cohen reported receiving an endowment from the McKnight Brain Research Foundation. Dr Lopez reported serving as a consultant for Baxter, Lilly, Grifols, and Lundbeck. Dr McDermott reported receiving grant funding from Regeneron. Dr Reid reported serving as a consultant for Eli Lilly and Co and Bay Cove Human Services. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was funded by cooperative agreement UO1 AG22376 from the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging and 3U01AG022376-05A2S from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and sponsored in part by the Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health. This research was also supported by the following grants awarded to Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers: Boston, Massachusetts (1P30AG031679), Florida (1 P30 AG028740), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (P30 AG024827), Wake Forest University (1 P30 AG21332), and Yale University (P30AG021342). Dr Reid’s contribution was partially supported by the US Department of Agriculture under agreement 58-1950-7-707.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health was a voting member (1 of 12 votes) of the LIFE study steering committee, which approved the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The investigators for the LIFE study were Mary M. McDermott, MD (field center principal investigator), Bonnie Spring, PhD (field center co-principal investigator), Joshua Hauser, MD, Martha Gulati, MD, Sanjiv Shah, MD, Kathryn Domanchuk, Rex Graff, Kasia Kadela, and Alvito Rego (Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois); Timothy Church, MD, PhD, MPH (field center principal investigator), Steven Blair, PED, Valerie Myers, PhD, Ron Monce, PA-C, Nathan Britt, NP, Melissa Nauta, BS, Ami Parks, MPA, BS, Ruben Rodarte, MBA, MS, BS, Heidi Millet, BS, Catrine Tudor-Locke, PhD, FACSM, Ben Butitta, BS, and Sheletta Donatto, MS, RD, LDN, CDE (Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana); Denise Bonds, MD (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland); Evan C. Hadley, MD, Kushang V. Patel, PhD, and Sergei Romashkan, MD, PhD (National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland); Robert M. Kaplan, PhD (Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland); Abby C. King, PhD (field center principal investigator), Cynthia M. Castro, PhD, William L. Haskell, PhD, Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD, Veronica Yank, MD, Leslie A. Pruitt, PhD, Kathy Berra, MSN, NP-C, FAAN, Carol Bell, NP, Rosita Thiessen, Kate P. Youngman, MA, Selene B. Virgen, BAS, Kristina N. Tarin, MS, CSCS, Heather Klaftenegger, Carolyn A. Prosak, RD, Ines Campero, BA, Dulce M. Garcia, José Soto, BA, Linda Chio, and David Hoskins, MS (Stanford University, Palo Alto, California); Roger Fielding, PhD (field center principal investigator), Miriam Nelson, PhD, Sara Folta, PhD, Edward Phillips, MD, Christine Liu, MD, Erica Cifarelli, MS, Kieran Reid, MSc, MPH, Paige Lacasse, BS, Dylan Kirn, BS, Evan Pasha, BS, Sonnly Ribourg, BS, Karen Ruais, NP, Won Kim, BS, and Gregory Cloutier, BS (Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts); Todd Manini, PhD (field center principal investigator), Marco Pahor, MD (field center co-principal investigator), Stephen Anton, PhD, Thomas Buford, PhD, Susan Nayfield, MD, MSc, Joe Nocera, PhD, Michael Marsiske, PhD, Bhanu Sandesara, MD, Jocelyn Lee, PhD, Deborah Hiatt-Jensen, ARNP, MPH, Mieniecia Black, MS, Kimberly Case, PhD, Katherine Herring, BS, Amber Schwier-Delvisco, BS, Bill Burk, Brian Hoover, BS, Jeffrey Knaggs, BS, and Allison Martin, MS, RCEP (University of Florida, Gainesville); Chonglun Xie, MD, Holly Morris, RN, Flo Singletary, MS, CCC-SLP, Jackie Causer, Susan Yonce, RN, Christine Del Boccio, Charles Gay, DC, and Tangerica Peavy Alexander (Brooks Center for Rehabilitation Studies, satellite site); Marco Pahor, MD (principal investigator), Stephen Anton, PhD, Thomas Buford, PhD, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, PhD, Susan Nayfield, MD, MSc, Todd Manini, PhD, Connie Caudle, Lauren Crump, MPH, Latonia Holmes, Jocelyn Lee, PhD, Ronald Lester, PhD, MBA, Ching-ju Lu, MPH, and Ryan O’Mara (Administrative Coordinating Center); Carl J. Pepine MD, MACC, Mario Ariet, PhD, Eileen Handberg, PhD, ARNP, Daniel Deluca, BS, and James Hill, MD, MS, FACC (Electrocardiogram Reading Center); Jack M. Guralnik, MD, PhD (co-principal investigator; University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore); Anne B. Newman, MD, MPH (field center principal investigator), Stephanie A. Studenski, MD, MPH (field center co-principal investigator), Bret H. Goodpaster, PhD, Oscar Lopez, MD, Nancy W. Glynn, PhD, Janet T. Bonk, MPH, RN, Jennifer Rush, MPH, Piera Kost, BA, Allison Gerger, BS, Pamela Vincent, CMA, LaTisha Davis, BS, Mark A. Newman, PhD, George Grove, MS, and Kathy Williams, RN, BSEd, MHSA (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania); Erik J. Groessl, PhD (VA San Diego Healthcare System and University of California, San Diego); Stephen B. Kritchevsky, PhD (field center principal investigator), Anthony Marsh, PhD (field center co-principal investigator), Tina Brinkley, PhD, Jamehl Demons, MD, Kaycee Sink, MD, MAS, Kimberly Kennedy, BA, CCRC, Rachel Shertzer-Skinner, MA, CCRC, Abbie Wrights, MS, Rose Fries, RN, CCRC, and Deborah Barr, MA, RHEd, CHES (Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina); Jeff Williamson, MD, MHS (center principal investigator), Kaycee M. Sink, MD, MAS (center co-principal investigator), Hugh C. Hendrie, MB, ChB, DSc, Stephen R. Rapp, PhD, Joe Verghese, MBBS, Nancy Woolard, and Valerie K. Wilson, MD (Cognition Reading Center); Michael E. Miller, PhD (principal investigator), Mark Espeland, PhD (co-principal investigator), Walter Ambrosius, PhD, Don Babcock, BSEE, PE, Daniel Beavers, PhD, MS, Robert P. Byington, PhD, MPH, FAHA, Delilah Cook, Curt Furberg, MD, PhD, Candace Goode, Jason Griffin, BS, Lea Harvin, BS, Leora Henkin, MPH, Med, John Hepler, BFA, Fang-Chi Hsu, PhD, Kathy Joyce, Laura Lovato, MS, Wesley Roberson, BSBA, Julia Robertson, BS, Julia Rushing, BSPH, MStat, Scott Rushing, BS, Cynthia L. Stowe, MPM, Michael P. Walkup, MS, Don Hire, BS, Jack Rejeski, PhD, Jeff Katula, PhD, MA, Peter H. Brubaker, PhD, Shannon Mihalko, PhD, Janine M. Jennings, PhD, and Kathy Lane, BA (Data Management, Analysis and Quality Control Center); Thomas M. Gill, MD (field center principal investigator), Robert S. Axtell, PhD, FACSM (field center co-principal investigator), Susan S. Kashaf, MD, Nathalie de Renekeire, MD, Joanne M. McGloin, MDiv, MS, MBA, Raeleen Mautner, PhD, Sharon M. Huie-White, MPH, Luann Bianco, BA, Janice Zocher, Denise M. Shepard, RN, MBA, Barbara Fennelly, MA, RN, Sean Halpin, MA, Theresa Barnett, MS, APRN, Karen C. Wu, RN, Lynne P. Iannone, MS, Julie A. Bugaj, MS, and Christine Bailey, MA (Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut); and Geoffrey Chupp, MD, Gail Flynn, RCP, CRFT, Thomas M. Gill, MD, John Hankinson, PhD, and Carlos A. Vaz Fragoso, MD (Spirometry Reading Center).
Disclaimer: The opinions, findings, conclusion, and recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the US Department of Agriculture. Dr McDermott, JAMA Senior Editor, was not involved in the review of or decision to publish this article.
Additional Contributions: We thank Valerie K. Wilson, MD (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and Veterans Affairs, Johnson City, Tennessee), who additionally contributed as an adjudicator of cognitive outcomes and received compensation.