The pace of innovation has become a gauge for the health of national economies, individual businesses, and educational systems. It is a crucial gauge, too, for the health of the health care industry. Health care innovation has centuries of tradition, as far back as Galen, Vesalius, and the champions of the scientific method. It is now a vast field. In 2015, health care innovation comprises entire subindustries developing new drugs, diagnostic tests, therapeutic devices, prosthetics, information technologies, and more.