Study concept and design: Rhodes, Rodgers, Sommers, Datner, Crits-Christoph.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Rhodes, Rodgers, Sommers, Hanlon, Chittams, Doyle, Datner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rhodes, Rodgers, Sommers, Hanlon, Chittams, Doyle, Crits-Christoph.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rhodes, Sommers, Doyle, Datner.
Statistical analysis: Hanlon, Chittams, Crits-Christoph.
Obtained funding: Rhodes, Sommers, Crits-Christoph.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rhodes, Rodgers, Doyle, Datner.
Study supervision: Rhodes, Rodgers, Doyle.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Sommers reported receiving book royalties from FA Davis. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was funded by award R01-AA018705 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Theresa Moyers, PhD (University of New Mexico) who received compensation as our motivational interview consultant on the treatment manual and who led adherence monitoring and rating of all recorded interventions. We also acknowledge our research staff: Elizabeth Dailey, MSW, Kate Watson, MS, Katherine Carroll, MS, Julie Tennille, MSW, PhD, Casey Bohrman, MSW, Alyssa Goodin, MSW, Hannah Jones-Lewis, MSW, Megan Schutt, MSW, and Catherine Monsky, MSW (motivational interviewing therapists; all from the University of Pennsylvania); Cjloe Vinoya, BS, Salem Wolk Valentino, MS, Marissa Sherman, MSW, Erica Dobbins, MSW, Catherine Buttner, MSW, and Sheila Kelly, MPH (research assistants); Darryl Snead and Christopher Boedec (IT support); Therese Sammarco, MS, and Aleda Thompson, MS (statistical support); and William Baxt, MD, Jill Baren, MD, John Flamma, MD (University of Pennsylvania emergency department directors). We offer many thanks to our volunteer consultants: Sharon Wilsnack, PhD (University of North Dakota), Richard Gelles, PhD (University of Pennsylvania), Gail D’Onofrio, MD (Yale University), Catherine Kothari, PhD (Michigan State University), Melissa Dichter, PhD (University of Pennsylvania), and James Wiley, PhD (University of California–San Francisco). We also thank our volunteer data and safety monitoring board members: Catherine Cerulli, JD, PhD (University of Rochester), Lori Post, PhD (Yale University), and Linda Degutis, PhD (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). We also offer special thanks to the many emergency department staff members and all of the women who participated in this study.