Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Rajaram, Chung, Mohanty, Bilimoria.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rajaram, Bilimoria.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Rajaram, Chung, Mohanty, Pavey, Bilimoria.
Obtained funding: Bilimoria.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rajaram, Kinnier, Barnard, McHugh, Bilimoria.
Study supervision: Bilimoria.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Bilimoria reported having received support from the National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Board of Surgery, American College of Surgeons, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Cancer Society, Health Care Services Corporation, California Health Care Foundation, Northwestern University, the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Foundation, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital and honoraria from hospitals and professional societies for clinical care and quality improvement research presentations. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Rajaram is supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (T32HS000078), the American College of Surgeons Clinical Scholars in Residence Program, and an unrestricted educational grant from Merck.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The sponsors had no access to the data and did not perform any of the study analysis.