Study concept and design: Krumholz, Wang.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Krumholz, Nuti, Downing, Normand, Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Krumholz, Nuti, Downing, Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Krumholz, Nuti, Downing, Normand, Wang.
Statistical analysis: Normand, Wang.
Obtained funding: Krumholz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Krumholz, Downing.
Study supervision: Krumholz, Normand.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Krumholz reports having research agreements with Medtronic and Johnson & Johnson, through Yale University, to develop methods of clinical trial data sharing, and chairs a cardiac scientific advisory board for UnitedHealth. Drs Krumholz and Normand work under contract to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop and maintain performance measures. Dr Normand reports serving on the board of directors for the Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation and serving on the scientific advisory board of the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Canada, for which she receives no salary but is reimbursed for travel to board meetings; she also reports receiving funding from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for monitoring the quality of cardiac care delivered in nonfederal Massachusetts acute care hospitals. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Krumholz is supported by grant U01 HL105270-05 (Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at Yale University) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Correction: This article was corrected on July 28, 2015, to reinsert the last 2 rows of Table 2, which were inadvertently omitted during the editing process.