JAMA. 1923;81(12):1006-1010. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02650120038009.
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In the brief time allotted to each subject, it is impossible to summarize even superficially the important points in the treatment of bronchial fistulas, and I will therefore be compelled to omit the masterly discussions of others and confine myself to the observations based on thirty-five cases that have been transferred to my service for treatment and final disposition. These fistulas were encountered in a large series of chronic empyema cases varying in duration from two to seven years, and were all demonstrated by direct observation, as the many-stage open method of exposure was used in all cases. When I speak of chronic empyema, I refer especially to the surgical failures, many of which have had all forms of radical operations; and, regardless of these surgical measures, the empyema and bronchial fistulas persisted. In addition to the radical procedures previously mentioned, in some cases there was muscle implantation over the


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