Study concept and design: Searcy, Hughes.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Searcy, Dowd, Hughes, Baldwin, Pigg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Searcy, Hughes, Baldwin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Searcy, Dowd, Hughes, Pigg.
Statistical analysis: Dowd, Hughes, Baldwin, Pigg.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Searcy, Dowd.
Study supervision: Searcy.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Hughes and Baldwin reported that their organization (Human Resources Research Organization) received funds from the Association of American Medical Colleges as consulting fees to conduct analyses for this research in collaboration with Dr Searcy, Mr Dowd, and Mr Pigg. No other disclosures were reported.
Additional Contributions: We thank the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and the following personnel for reviewing earlier drafts of the manuscript: Heather Alarcon, JD; Gabrielle Campbell, MBA, LLM; Atul Grover, MD, PhD; Robert Jones, PhD; Karen Mitchell, PhD; Scott Oppler, PhD; Elisa Siegal, AB; Frank Trinity, JD; and Geoffrey Young, PhD, all with the Association of American Medical Colleges. We also thank the following external reviewers for their review of the manuscript: Robert Linn, PhD, University of Colorado at Boulder; Paul Sackett, PhD, University of Minnesota; and Lauress Wise, PhD, Human Resources Research Organization. None of these persons was compensated for their contributions. Dr Wise’s organization (Human Resources Research Organization) received funds from the Association of American Medical Colleges as consulting fees to conduct analyses for this research.