Study concept and design: Männik, Reymond.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All the authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Männik, Reymond.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All the authors.
Statistical analysis: Männik, Mägi, Macé, Cole, Guyatt, Shihab, Mihailov, Kutalik, Pankratz, Timpson.
Obtained funding: Metspalu, Reymond.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mihailov, Alavere, Metspalu, Reymond.
Study supervision: Metspalu, Reymond.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Timpson, Gaunt, and Shihab work within the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, supported by the Medical Research Council [MC_UU_12013/1-9]. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Männik is a grantee of a scholarship from the Swiss Scientific Exchange New Member State of the European Union Program. Ms Guyatt is funded by a PhD studentship from the Wellcome Trust (grant 102433/Z/13/Z). Dr Jacquemont is a Bursary Professor of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). This study is supported by 2 SNSF grants (31003A_160203, Drs Reymond, and Kutalik), a specific 16p11.2 SNSF Sinergia grant (CRSII33-133044, Dr Reymond), the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI274424, Dr Reymond), Leenaards Foundation Prizes (Drs Jacquemont, Reymond, and Kutalik), European Commission Framework Program 7 grants (278913, 306031, and 313010) (Dr Metspalu), Center of Excellence in Genomics (EXCEGEN) and University of Tartu (SP1GVARENG, Dr Metspalu), Estonian Research Council Grant (IUT20-60, Dr Metspalu), US Public Health Service grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA09367 and AA11886, Dr Pankratz), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA05147, DA13240, and DA024417, Dr Pankratz), and the National Institute of Mental Health (MH066140, Dr Pankratz).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: None of the funders or sponsors had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclosure: This publication is the work of the authors, who will serve as guarantors for the contents of this article.
Additional Data: ALSPAC data were generated by Sample Logistics and Genotyping Facilities at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and LabCorp (Laboratory Corporation of America) using support from 23andMe. ALSPAC analyses were completed using computational facilities of the Advanced Computing Research Centre, University of Bristol (http://www.bris.ac.uk/acrc).
Additional Contributions: We thank the EGCUT participants, the EGCUT personnel for their compensated assistance in recruiting, phenotyping, routing samples, genotyping, and administrative responsibilities especially those of Mari Nelis, PhD, Lili Milani, PhD, Viljo Soo, Kairit Mikkel, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, MSc, and Steven Smit. We are grateful to Sven Bergmann, PhD, University of Lausanne for comments on the manuscript. We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in the ALSPAC study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists, and nurses. We are grateful to Mary Ward for her advice on the use of the ALSPAC education data. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (grant 102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provided core support for ALSPAC.