Published Online: May 17, 2015. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5213.
Study concept and design: Stéphan, Rézaiguia-Delclaux, Imbert, Pilorge.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Stéphan, Bérard.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Barrucand, Petit, Rézaiguia-Delclaux, Médard, Delannoy, Cosserant, Flicoteaux, Imbert, Pilorge.
Statistical analysis: Bérard.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stéphan, Petit, Médard, Delannoy.
Study supervision: Stéphan, Cosserant.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Previous Presentation: Selected data in this article were presented at the 2014 ATS meeting in San Diego, California, May 16-21.
The BiPOP Study Group: The study investigators include the authors and the following investigators (all in France): J. Camous, MD, T. Kortchinsky, MD, P. Massabie, MD, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson; E. Samain, MD, PhD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Besançon; O. Bastien, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lyon; J. Richecoeur, MD, E. Boulet, MD, Hôpital de Pontoise, Pontoise; and P. Sarrabay, MD, A. Ouattara, MD, PhD, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux.
Additional Contributions: We thank Mansouria Merad, PhD, for technical assistance; Jean Chastre, MD, and Laurent Brochard, MD, for critically revising the manuscript; and Antoinette Wolfe, MD, for English editing. No one received financial compensation for his or her contributions.