Study concept and design: Goldberg, Firtch, Avins.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Goldberg, Avins.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Pressman, Ackerson, Avins.
Obtained funding: Goldberg, Avins.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Goldberg, Firtch, Tyburski, Hamilton, Won.
Study supervision: Goldberg, Firtch, Tyburski, Pressman, Hamilton, Avins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Carragee reports travel support from the US Army, grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and AOSpine, and options from Simpirica and Intrinsic Orthopedics. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant R01 AR053960 from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) of the US National Institutes of Health to Drs Goldberg and Avins.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: NIAMS had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the support provided by the following individuals: Nancy E. Wittels, MS, M. Ted Diepenbrock, MS, and Kyaw (Michael) Lin, BA, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, for data acquisition and clinical site management (received salary support from the NIAMS research grant); Cynthia Huynh, RN, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, for data acquisition and quality control (received salary support from the NIAMS research grant); Fiona Sinclair, PA-C, MHS, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, for participant recruitment (received salary support from the NIAMS research grant; and Erika L. Marmalejo, CCRC, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, for regulatory support (received funding from Kaiser Permanente Northern California).