Study concept and design: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Chawarski, Busch, Fiellin.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Chawarski, Busch, Owens, Bernstein, Fiellin.
Drafting of the manuscript: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Chawarski, Fiellin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Chawarski.
Obtained funding: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Chawarski, Owens, Fiellin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Owens, Bernstein, Fiellin.
Study supervision: D’Onofrio, O’Connor, Pantalon, Bernstein, Fiellin.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Fiellin reported that he has received honoraria from Pinney Associates for serving on an external advisory board monitoring the diversion and abuse of buprenorphine. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by grant 5R01DA025991 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Reckitt-Benckiser Pharmaceuticals provided buprenorphine through NIDA.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.