Study concept and design: Shore, Ho, Turakhia.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shore, Lambert-Kerzner, Glorioso, Turakhia.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shore, Ho, Carey, Cunningham, Longo, Jackevicius, Rose, Turakhia.
Statistical analysis: Glorioso, Carey, Turakhia.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shore, Cunningham, Longo, Turakhia.
Study supervision: Lambert-Kerzner, Turakhia.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Turakhia reported that he is a consultant to Precision Health Economics, Medtronic Inc, and St Jude Medical Inc. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Turakhia is supported by a Career Development Award from VA Health Services Research & Development, an American Heart Association National Scientist Development Grant, and a Gilead Sciences Cardiovascular Research Scholars Program award.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: None of the funders were involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit it for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.
Previous Presentation: This study has presented as an abstract presentation at AHA-QCOR 2014 Scientific Session in Baltimore, MD.
Additional Contributions: We thank Madeline McCarren for review of the manuscript and discussion of possible interpretations of the findings.