Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Muench, Sindelar, Buerhaus.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Muench, Busch.
Obtained funding: Muench.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Muench, Busch, Buerhaus.
Study supervision: Sindelar, Busch.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Buerhaus reported receiving payment for lectures from a variety of organizations, associations, universities, and groups; and being appointed chair of the National Health Care Workforce, which was established under the Affordable Care Act, but has not begun any work yet. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was in part supported by a grant from Sigma Theta Tau, Delta Mu Chapter.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Sigma Theta Tau had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: We dedicate this study to Donna Diers, PhD (Yale School of Nursing), who died during the early stages of this research.