Chilblain, or erythema pernio, is a form of erythema that appears in the late fall and winter months in individuals with a poor peripheral circulation and a disturbed vasomotor mechanism. In the mild cases there is merely a slight dusky or dark red discoloration of the regions with feeble peripheral circulation, as the tip of the nose, the lobes of the ears, the fingers, the toes, the heels and the cheeks. Usually, with the erythema, there is an exudation into the tissues resulting in the formation of papules, tubercles and plaques. In the severe cases, vesicles and bullae develop on top of the solid lesions. The vesicles, when ruptured or torn, give rise to erosions, ulcers and rarely to sloughing areas.
In the mildest cases there is no subjective symptom except discoloration of the skin. In the moderate and the severe cases the patients complain of mild, moderate or intense