Study concept and design: Jarvik, Heagerty, Turner, Bresnahan, Friedly, Nerenz, Sullivan, Chan, Deyo.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jarvik, Gold, Comstock, Heagerty, Rundell, Turner, Avins, Bauer, Bresnahan, Friedly, James, Kessler, Nedeljkovic, Nerenz, Shi, Chan, Schwalb, Deyo.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jarvik, Gold, Heagerty, Rundell, Bresnahan, Chan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Jarvik, Gold, Comstock, Heagerty, Rundell, Avins, Kessler, Shi.
Obtained funding: Jarvik, Turner, Bresnahan, Friedly.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jarvik, Gold, Comstock, Turner, Avins, Bauer, Bresnahan, Friedly, James, Nedeljkovic, Sullivan, Chan.
Study supervision: Jarvik, Heagerty, Avins, Nedeljkovic, Nerenz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Jarvik reported that he served on the Comparative Effectiveness Advisory Board for GE Healthcare through October 2012; is a cofounder and stockholder of PhysioSonics, a high-intensity focused ultrasound company; receives royalties for intellectual property; and is also a consultant for HealthHelp, a radiology benefits management company. Dr Deyo reported that he has received honoraria as a member of the board of directors of the Informed Medical Decisions Foundation, a nonprofit organization; receives royalties from UpToDate for authoring topics on acute low back pain; and his university has received an endowment from Kaiser Permanente that supports part of his salary. He has current and pending grants from US federal agencies. Dr Bresnahan reported that he owns stock in and was an employee of Johnson & Johnson. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants 1R01HS01922201 and 1R01HS022972-01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and from the NIH Intramural Research Program (Dr Chan’s time).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The study sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the research staff for data collection and their overall dedication to this study: Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Vanguard Brian Orrick, MBA; Andrew Aherrera, MS; and Courtney Rust, BS; Kaiser Permanente Northern California Luisa Hamilton, MD; Jennifer Ireland, MA; Rebecca Rogot, BA; Karen Hansen, BA; Cynthia Huynh, MN; and Daniel Fernandez, BS; Henry Ford Health System Lisa Pietrantoni, BS; Ashkhen Movsisyan, BS; Paramjit Octain, MA; Lori Monia-Allen, BS; and Ryan Shelters, BS. We also thank Kathrine Tan, BS, PhD candidate, Department of Biostatistics, the University of Washington, Seattle, for help with the natural language processing (NLP). None mentioned herein received compensation for their contributions other than their usual salary support.
Correction: This article was corrected March 25, 2015, to align and add data in Tables 1 through 4.