Drs Peters, Hsu, and Chan share senior authorship.
Study concept and design: Nan, Hutter, Ulrich, Brenner, Campbell, Chang-Claude, Fuchs, Hopper, Seminara, Slattery, Thibodeau, Peters, Hsu, Chan.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Nan, Hutter, Lin, Jacobs, Ulrich, White, Baron, Berndt, Brenner, Butterbach, Caan, Campbell, Carlson, Casey, Chanock, Cotterchio, Duggan, Figueiredo, Fuchs, Giovannucci, Gong, Haile, Harrison, Hayes, Hoffmeister, Hopper, Hudson, Jenkins, Jiao, Lindor, Lemire, Le Marchand, Newcomb, Ogino, Pflugeisen, Potter, Qu, Rosse, Rudolph, Schoen, Schumacher, Slattery, Thomas, Thornquist, Warnick, Zanke, Gauderman, Peters, Hsu, Chan.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nan, Lin, Campbell, Chang-Claude, Figueiredo, Fuchs, Warnick, Peters, Hsu, Chan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nan, Hutter, Jacobs, Ulrich, White, Baron, Berndt, Brenner, Butterbach, Caan, Carlson, Casey, Chanock, Cotterchio, Duggan, Fuchs, Giovannucci, Gong, Haile, Harrison, Hayes, Hoffmeister, Hopper, Hudson, Jenkins, Jiao, Lindor, Lemire, Le Marchand, Newcomb, Ogino, Pflugeisen, Potter, Qu, Rosse, Rudolph, Schoen, Schumacher, Seminara, Slattery, Thibodeau, Thomas, Thornquist, Zanke, Gauderman, Peters, Hsu, Chan.
Statistical analysis: Nan, Hutter, Lin, Campbell, Chang-Claude, Fuchs, Jiao, Lemire, Pflugeisen, Qu, Gauderman, Hsu, Chan.
Obtained funding: Brenner, Caan, Chanock, Fuchs, Giovannucci, Haile, Hopper, Hudson, Jenkins, Lindor, Newcomb, Schoen, Slattery, Peters, Chan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: White, Brenner, Campbell, Duggan, Gong, Harrison, Hayes, Hoffmeister, Hopper, Newcomb, Potter, Rudolph, Schumacher, Thibodeau, Thornquist, Warnick, Zanke, Chan.
Study supervision: Nan, Brenner, Campbell, Chanock, Fuchs, Harrison, Hudson, Potter, Peters, Hsu, Chan.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Baron reported holding a use patent for aspirin as a colorectal chemopreventive agent. Dr Zanke reported holding a patent licensed to Arctic Dx. Dr Chan reported receiving personal fees from Bayer Healthcare, Pozen, and Pfizer. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: GECCO (Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium) was supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (U01 CA137088; R01 CA059045). CCFR (Colon Cancer Family Registry) was supported by the NIH (RFA CA-95-011) and through cooperative agreements with members of the Colon Cancer Family Registry and prinicipal investigators. This genome wide scan was supported by the NCI, NIH, by U01 CA122839. The following Colon CFR centers contributed data to this manuscript and were supported by NIH: Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (U01 CA097735), Ontario Registry for Studies of Familial Colorectal Cancer (U01 CA074783), and Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (U01 CA074794). DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening Study) is supported by the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, BR 1704/6-1, BR 1704/6-3, BR 1704/6-4 and CH 117/1-1) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01KH0404 and 01ER0814). DALS (Diet, Activity and Lifestyle Study) is supported by the NIH (R01 CA48998 to Dr Slattery). HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study) is supported by the NIH (P01 CA 055075, UM1 CA167552, R01 137178, R01 CA151993, and P50 CA 127003) and the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study) by the NIH (R01 CA137178, P01 CA 087969, R01 CA151993, and P50 CA 127003). Dr Chan is also supported by K24 DK098311 and is a Damon Runyon Clinical Investigator. OFCCR (Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry) is supported by the NIH through funding allocated to the Ontario Registry for Studies of Familial Colorectal Cancer (U01 CA074783) (see CCFR section above). As subset of ARCTIC, OFCCR is supported by a GL2 grant from the Ontario Research Fund, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Cancer Risk Evaluation (CaRE) Program grant from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute. Dr Hudson and Dr Zanke are recipients of Senior Investigator Awards from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, through generous support from the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation. PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial) is supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and by contracts from the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services. PMH-CCFR (Postmenopausal Hormone Study–Colon Cancer Family Registry) is supported by the NIH (R01 CA076366 to Dr Newcomb). VITAL (VITamins And Lifestyle) is supported by the NIH (K05 CA154337). WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) is supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, US Department of Health and Human Services, through contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The funders and sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content of this manuscript does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the NCI or any of the collaborating centers in the CFRs, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government or the CFR.
Additional Contributions: We thank all study participants for making this work possible. We appreciate the efforts of the GECCO Coordinating Center ensuring the success of this collaboration. For DACHS, we thank all participants and cooperating clinicians, and Ute Handte-Daub, Renate Hettler-Jensen, Utz Benscheid, Muhabbet Celik, and Ursula Eilber for excellent technical assistance. For NHS and HPFS, we acknowledge all participants and staff; Patrice Soule and Hardeep Ranu of the Dana Farber Harvard Cancer Center High-Throughput Polymorphism Core, who assisted in the genotyping under the supervision of Dr Immaculata Devivo and Dr David Hunter; Qun Guo, who assisted in programming. We also thank the cancer registries of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. For PLCO, we thank Drs Christine Berg and Philip Prorok, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute; the Screening Center investigators and staff for the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial; Tom Riley and staff, Information Management Services Inc; Barbara O’Brien and staff, Westat Inc; and Drs Bill Kopp, Wen Shao, and staff, SAIC-Frederick. For PMH, we thank the staff of the Hormones and Colon Cancer study. For WHI, we thank the WHI investigators and staff for their dedication, and the study participants for making the program possible. A full listing of WHI investigators can be found on the WHI website. Last, we acknowledge COMPASS (Comprehensive Center for the Advancement of Scientific Strategies) at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for its work harmonizing the GECCO epidemiologic data set.
Correction: This article was corrected online on March 25, 2015, to add a note regarding shared authorship, correct an author degree, and correct a typographical error in the Acknowledgment section.