Study concept and design: Elmore, Onega, Tosteson, Nelson, Pepe, Allison, Weaver.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Elmore, Carney, Geller, Nelson, Pepe, Schnitt, Weaver.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Longton, Onega, Pepe.
Obtained funding: Elmore, Carney, Geller, Onega, Tosteson, Nelson, Weaver.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Onega, Tosteson, O’Malley, Weaver.
Study supervision: Elmore, Allison, Weaver.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Elmore reports serving as a medical editor for the nonprofit Informed Medical Decisions Foundation. Dr Allison reports personal fees from Genentech. No other authors had potential conflicts of interest to report.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute (R01CA140560, R01CA172343, and K05CA104699) and by the National Cancer Institute-funded Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (U01CA70013 and HHSN261201100031C). The collection of cancer and vital status data used in this study was supported in part by several state public health departments and cancer registries throughout the United States. For a full description of sources, visit http://www.breastscreening.cancer.gov/work/acknowledgement.html. The American Medical Association (AMA) is the source for the raw physician data; statistics, tables, or tabulations were prepared by the authors using AMA Physician Masterfile data. The AMA Physician Masterfile data on pathologist age, sex, level of direct medical care, and proportion working in a population of 250 000 or more were used in comparing characteristics of participants and nonparticipants.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: We thank Ventana Medical Systems, a member of the Roche Group, for use of iScan Coreo Au digital scanning equipment, and HD View SL for the source code used to build our digital viewer.