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JAMA. 1918;70(21):1522-1523. doi:10.1001/jama.1918.02600210012006.
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In May, 1917, at Tokyo, Futaki demonstrated spirochetes in the urine and the renal casts of typhusinfected kidneys, and reported them as the specific causative agent of typhus fever. Two months later, Futaki's report was discussed by Miyashima, Kusama and Koga. Miyashima and Kusama had not been

able to find any spirochetes in the kidneys or other organs of experimental typhus-infected animals (rabbits and guinea-pigs). Koga had found many spirochetes (the Spirochaeta smegmatis?) in the urine of patients suffering from different diseases and also in healthy persons, but he could not find any points in which morphologically the spirochetes differed from the spirochetes of Futaki. There was, however, a stronger pulse than in the presence of spirochetes in the kidneys. For control examination, we observed many kidneys, which were mostly affected by acute and chronic nephritis, in which casts were present. These we stained by Levaditi's method. We found many


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