George W. Hawley, M.D.
JAMA. 1918;70(1):22-23. doi:10.1001/jama.1918.26010010003009c.
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Traction, either temporary or continuous, is one of the forces constantly utilized in fracture treatment, and while the moleskin straps applied to the surface of the limb still have their place in practice, the introduction of methods in which a direct pull is obtained on the bone structure itself is a step in the right direction. The advantages of the direct traction are its efficiency (and there is no denying that a comparatively light weight of from 5 to 15 pounds usually provides effective extension) and its peculiar usefulness in fractures associated with extensive injuries of the soft tissues when surface traction is impossible. As is so often the case, there are some who carry direct traction too far, and others who have gone to the other extreme. They serve the natural purpose of indicating the middle ground.

The Codavilla and Steinmann pins were designed and have been almost entirely


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