Author Contributions: Dr Shojania had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Shojania, Ranji, McDonald, Grimshaw, Owens.
Acquisition of data: Shojania, Ranji, Sundaram, Owens.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Shojania, Ranji, McDonald, Grimshaw, Sundaram, Rushakoff, Owens.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shojania, Ranji, Owens.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ranji, McDonald, Grimshaw, Sundaram, Rushakoff, Owens.
Statistical analysis: Shojania, Ranji, Sundaram, Owens.
Obtained funding: Shojania, McDonald, Owens.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shojania, McDonald, Sundaram.
Study supervision: Owens.
Determination of cutoff criteria for analysis: Rushakoff.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This article is based in part on work performed by the Stanford-UCSF Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Contract 290-02-0017), Rockville, Md. Drs Shojania and Grimshaw hold Government of Canada Research Chairs; Dr Owens receives support from the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funding organizations had any role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Lauren K. Shaw, Lisa N. Charo, BA, and Jennifer C. Lai, BSc, paid research assistants at the time of the study, for assistance with article reviews and abstractions; Alan Bostrom, PhD, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, San Francisco, for statistical expertise; and Robert M. Wachter, MD, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, and Amy J. Markowitz, JD, and for editorial comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Dr Bostrom received hourly compensation for his contributions; Dr Wachter and Ms Markowitz received no compensation. We also thank the authors who responded to questions about their published studies and the additional authors who shared unpublished data.