Author Contributions: Dr Henschke had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Henschke, Miettinen.
Acquisition of data: Henschke.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Henschke, Miettinen, Yip.
Drafting of the manuscript: Henschke, Miettinen, Yip.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Henschke, Miettinen.
Statistical analysis: Henschke, Miettinen, Yip.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Henschke.
Study supervision: Henschke.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
The I-ELCAP Investigators:Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY: Claudia I. Henschke, Principal Investigator, David F. Yankelevitz, Dorothy I. McCauley; Azumi General Hospital, Nagano, Japan: Shusuke Sone, Takaomi Hanaoka;CBNS, City University of New York at Queens College, Queens, NY: Steven Markowitz, Albert Miller; LungenZentrum Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland: Karl Klingler, Thomas Scherer, Rolf Inderbitzi; Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain: Javier Zulueta, Gorka Bastarrika, Maria D. Lozano; National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy: Salvatore Giunta, Marcello Crecco, Patrizia Pugliese; H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, Fla: Melvyn Tockman; Hadassah Medical Organization, Jerusalem, Israel: Dorith Shaham; Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Wash: Kim Rice, Ralph Aye; University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada: Heidi Roberts, Demetris Patsios; Christiana Care, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Newark, Del: Thomas Bauer, James Lally; Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY: John H.M. Austin, Gregory D. N. Pearson; New York University Medical Center, New York, NY: David Naidich, Georgeann McGuinness; State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY: Matthew Rifkin, Edward Fiore; Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY: Samuel Kopel; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY: Donald Klippenstein, Alan Litwin, Peter A. Loud; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY: Leslie J. Kohman, Ernest M. Scalzetti; North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY: Arfa Khan, Rakesh Shah; Georgia Institute for Lung Cancer Research, Atlanta, Ga: Michael V. Smith, Hadyn T. Williams, Louis Lovett; Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY: David S. Mendelson; Jackson Memorial Hospital, University of Miami, Miami, Fla: Richard Thurer; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY: Robert T. Heelan, Michelle S. Ginsberg; Holy Cross Hospital Cancer Institute, Silver Spring, MD: Frank Sullivan, Marlana Ottinger; Eisenhower Lucy Curci Cancer Center, Rancho Mirage, Calif: Davood Vafai; New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY: Terence A.S. Matalon; Mount Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami Beach, Fla: Shari-Lynn Odzer; The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, China: Xueguo Liu; Dorothy E. Schneider Cancer Center, Mills-Peninsula Health Services, San Mateo, Calif: Barry Sheppard; St Agnes Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD: Enser Cole; Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, Bronx, NY: Peter H. Wiernik; Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Medical Group, Evanston, Ill: Daniel Ray; Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Mich: Harvey Pass, Carmen Endress; Greenwich Hospital, Greenwich, Conn: David Mullen; Sharp Memorial Hospital, San Diego, Calif: Michael Kalafer; City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, Calif: Fred Grannis, Arnold Rotter; ProHealth Care Regional Cancer Center, Waukesha & Oconomowoc Memorial Hospitals, Oconomowoc, Wis: M. Kristin Thorsen, Richard Hansen; Comprehensive Cancer Center, Desert Regional Medical Center, Palm Springs, Calif: Elber Camacho; St Joseph Health Center, St Charles, Mo: Dan Luedke.
Coordinating Center, Joan and Sanford I.Weill Medical College of Cornell University: Claudia I. Henschke, PhD, MD, Principal Investigator; Nasser Altorki, MD, Ali Farooqi, MD, Jennifer Hess, MBA, Daniel Libby, MD, Dorothy I. McCauley, MD, Olli S. Miettinen, MD, PhD (also McGill University, Montreal, Canada), Jamie Ostroff, PhD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center), Mark W. Pasmantier, MD, Anthony P. Reeves, PhD (also Cornell University), James P. Smith, MD, Madeline Vazquez, MD, David F. Yankelevitz, MD, Rowena Yip, MPH, Kimberly Agnello, BS, Arin Kramer BS.
Pathology Review Panel: Darryl Carter, MD, Chairman, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn; Elizabeth Brambilla, MD, Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Grenoble, France; Adi Gazdar, MD, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas; Masayuki Noguchi, MD, Department of Pathology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan; William D. Travis, MD, Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.