Study concept and design: Emdin, Rahimi, Neal, Patel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Emdin, Rahimi, Neal, Callender, Perkovic, Patel.
Drafting of the manuscript: Emdin, Rahimi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Emdin, Rahimi, Neal, Callender, Perkovic, Patel.
Statistical analysis: Emdin.
Obtained funding: Rahimi.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Neal, Callender.
Study supervision: Rahimi, Neal, Patel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Rahimi reports receipt of grants from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the Oxford Martin School during the conduct of this study. Drs Neal and Perkovic report receipt of payments to the The George Institute for Global Health from several corporations for research and for speaking about diabetes, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Dr Perkovic reports receipt of grants and personal fees from Abbvie, personal fees and other from Boehringer Ingleheim, other from Astellas, grants and other from Janssen, other from Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, personal fees from Servier, AstraZeneca, Roche, and Merck, grants and personal fees from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), grants from Baxter, and grants and nonfinancial support from Pfizer outside the submitted work. Dr Patel reports receipt of payment to her institution for her participation in an industry advisory board, and funding to her institution from Servier Laboratories and the NHMRC to conduct (as study director) the ADVANCE trial, which focused on blood pressure lowering in people with diabetes. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The George Institute for Global Health has received grants from several pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with diabetes. Dr Neal is supported by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship. Drs Neal, Perkovic, and Patel are supported by NHMRC of Australia Senior Research Fellowships and hold an NHMRC program grant. Dr Rahimi is supported by the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and NIHR Career Development Fellowship. Mr Emdin is supported by the Rhodes Trust. The work of the George Institute is supported by the Oxford Martin School.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Jun Cao, MRes, Imperial College London, for sorting abstracts in duplicate, and Tatjana Petrinic, MSc, University of Oxford, for helping to design the search strategy. Neither was compensated for their contributions.