Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Case, Patel.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Case, Patel.
Statistical analysis: Case, Patel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Case, Burwick, Patel.
Study supervision: Volpp, Patel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Volpp reported receiving research funding from Humana, Merck, Discovery, Weight Watchers, and CVS; consulting income from CVS and VALhealth; and being a principal at VALhealth. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part through grant RC4 AG039114-01 from the National Institute on Aging. Dr Patel was supported by the US Department of Veteran Affairs and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institute on Aging, the US Department of Veteran Affairs, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.