Study concept and design: Merkow, Ju, Ko, Bilimoria.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Merkow, Ju, Hall, Bilimoria.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Merkow, Ju, Chung, Cohen, Bilimoria.
Obtained funding: Ko, Bilimoria.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Hall, Cohen, Ko, Bilimoria.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Merkow is supported by the American College of Surgeons Clinical Scholars in Residence Program and the Northwestern Institute for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Oncology (NICER-Onc). Dr Ju is supported by the American College of Surgeons Clinical Scholars in Residence Program and National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant 5T32HL094293. Dr Hall is a consultant to the American College of Surgeons. Dr Bilimoria reported support from the NIH, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Cancer Society, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American College of Surgeons, American Board of Surgery, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Health Care Services Corporation, and the Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center of Northwestern University.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The study funders/sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the views of the US government or the American College of Surgeons.
Additional Contributions: We would like to thank Allison Dahlke, MPH (Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center, Northwestern University), for her assistance with manuscript revisions and Emily Pavey, MS (Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center, Northwestern University), for statistical consultation. We also thank Cindy Barnard, MBA, and Terri Halverson, both of Quality Strategies, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, for their assistance. None of these persons were compensated for their contributions.