Author Contributions: Dr McWilliams had full access to all of the data in the study, performed all statistical analyses in close consultation with Drs Meara, Zaslavsky, and Ayanian,
and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: McWilliams,
Meara, Zaslavsky, Ayanian.
Acquisition of data: McWilliams.
Analysis and interpretation of data:
McWilliams, Meara, Zaslavsky, Ayanian.
Drafting of the manuscript: McWilliams,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: McWilliams, Meara, Ayanian.
Statistical analysis: McWilliams, Meara,
Obtained funding: McWilliams, Ayanian.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Ayanian.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Ayanian reports having served as a consultant to RTI International and DxCG. Dr Meara reports having served as a consultant to the Employment Policies Institute.
No other financial disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 20060485 from the Commonwealth Fund and grant 5 T32 HS000020-21
from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Data from the Health and Retirement Study were produced and distributed by the University of Michigan with funding from the National Institute on Aging (grant number NIA U01AG009740).
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors played no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management,
analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review,
or approval of the manuscript.