Author Contributions: Drs Pandey and Goyal had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Pandey, Riboud, Levine, Goyal.
Acquisition of data: Pandey, Levine, Goyal.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Pandey, Sehgal, Riboud, Levine, Goyal.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pandey, Levine, Goyal.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pandey, Sehgal, Riboud, Levine, Goyal.
Statistical analysis: Pandey, Sehgal, Levine, Goyal.
Obtained funding: Pandey, Riboud, Levine, Goyal.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Pandey, Riboud, Levine, Goyal.
Study supervision: Pandey, Sehgal, Levine, Goyal.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: We gratefully acknowledge financial support from Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra (a nongovernmental organization based in Uttar Pradesh) and the World Bank.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations aided in design of the study. They had no role in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data or in the preparation of the manuscript. World Bank approved the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed here are entirely those of the authors, and they do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank, its executive directors, or the countries they represent.
Acknowledgment: We would like to thank Mitch Feldman, MD, MPhil, for critical revisions and participants at research seminars at the World Bank, Johns Hopkins, and Economics of Education conference in Dijon, France, for their helpful comments. Dr Feldman received no compensation for his contribution.