Study concept and design: Hautz, Kämmer, Spies, Gaissmaier.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hautz, Kämmer, Schauber.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kämmer, Schauber.
Obtained funding: Kämmer, Spies.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hautz, Kämmer, Schauber, Spies.
Study supervision: Hautz, Spies, Gaissmaier.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Spies reported receiving grants from Ethical Committee Vienna Faculty of Medicine, Zon-Mw-Dutch Research Community, Care Fusion, Deltex, Fresenius, Hutchinson, Medizinische Congressorganisation Nürnberg, Novartis, Pajunk, Grünenthal, Köhler Chemie, Roche, Orion Pharma, Outcome Europe Sàrl, University Hospital Stavanger, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen, Bund Deutscher Anästhesisten, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt, German Research Society, Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Inner University Grants, Stifterverband, and the European Commission; and receiving personal fees from B. Braun Foundation, ConvaTec International Service GmbH, Pfizer Pharma, Vifor Pharma, Fresenius Kabi, and Georg Thieme Verlag. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sciences of Berlin awarded to Dr Spies.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sciences of Berlin had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Fabian Stroben (Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany) for his support in data acquisition; Olga Kunina-Habenicht, PhD (University of Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt, Germany), Olaf Ahlers, MD (Charité Universitätsmedizin), and Michel Knigge, PhD (University of Halle, Halle, Germany), for their contribution to the development of test cases; Olga Kunina-Habenicht, PhD (University of Frankfurt/Main), and Raimund Senf, MD (Charité Universitätsmedizin), for their support in acquiring expert test data; and Stefanie Hautz (Charité Universitätsmedizin) for her critique of the manuscript. None received financial or other compensation for their contributions.