Dietary factors have been implicated in the etiology of type 1 diabetes and in the autoimmune process that leads to clinical disease. For example, results of a retrospective case control study of children in Norway suggested that the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus was lower in children who were given marine omega-3 containing cod liver oil supplements during infancy, a dietary practice that may reduce the inflammatory response and the risk for autoimmune diseases later in life. In a longitudinal cohort of children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), Norris and colleagues examined the association of dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids starting at age 1 year with the development of islet autoantibodies. The authors report that among 1770 children enrolled in the study, 58 developed islet autoimmunity. In analyses that were adjusted for HLA genotype, family history of diabetes, caloric intake, and omega-6 fatty acid intake, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids was inversely associated with the risk of developing islet autoantibodies.