Study concept and design: Arterburn, Olsen, Livingston, Yancy, Eid, Maciejewski.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Arterburn, Olsen, Smith, Livingston, Van Scoyoc, Yancy, Eid, Weidenbacher, Maciejewski.
Drafting of the manuscript: Arterburn, Olsen, Smith, Livingston, Maciejewski.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Arterburn, Olsen, Smith, Livingston, Van Scoyoc, Yancy, Eid, Weidenbacher, Maciejewski.
Statistical analysis: Arterburn, Olsen, Smith, Livingston, Van Scoyoc, Maciejewski.
Obtained funding: Arterburn, Livingston, Maciejewski.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Van Scoyoc, Weidenbacher, Maciejewski.
Study supervision: Arterburn, Olsen, Maciejewski.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Arterburn reports receiving institutional grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), and the Informed Medical Decisions Foundation; and receipt of payment for travel expenses from the Informed Medical Decisions Foundation. Dr Olsen reports receiving grants and personal fees from NIH and PCORI, as well as personal fees from the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Dr Eid reports receiving personal fees from Apollo Endosurgery, Bariatric Fusion, Cooper Surgical, and Covidien. Dr Maciejewski reports receiving institutional grants from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Health Care Financing and Organization Initiative, and an institutional contract from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; receipt of consulting fees from Daichi Sankyo; and ownership of Amgen stock. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by the Health Services Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs (IIR 10-159) and by a research career scientist award from the Department of Veterans Affairs (RCS 10-391; Dr Maciejewski).
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: This study was reviewed by the Surgical Quality Data Use Group of the Veterans Affairs National Surgery Office for adherence to the data use agreement. The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the US government, Duke University, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Allegheny Health Network, the Group Health Research Institute, or the University of Washington. Dr Livingston, JAMA Deputy Editor, was not involved in the editorial review of or decision to publish this article.