Author Contributions: Dr Baernstein had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Baernstein, Liss, Carney, Elmore.
Acquisition of data: Baernstein, Liss.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Baernstein, Liss, Carney, Elmore.
Drafting of the manuscript: Baernstein, Liss, Carney, Elmore.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Baernstein, Liss, Elmore.
Statistical analysis: Baernstein, Carney.
Obtained funding: Elmore.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Elmore.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: The Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, provided administrative support in obtaining documents. The statistical analysis was reviewed by Jan Carline, PhD, Department of Medical Education and Biomedical Informatics, University of Washington. Sherry Dodson, MLS, Health Sciences Libraries, University of Washington, assisted in designing the search strategy. Lisa Johnson, MN (Medicos Sin Fronteras, Guatemala), Angelika Koch-Liebmann, MD (Department of Medicine, University of Washington), Wendell de Moura, Hiroo Takayama, MD (Department of Surgery, University of Washington), and Melanie Tratnik, JD (Washington State Office of the Attorney General) translated foreign-language publications and Morrie Bills, Raymond Harris, PhD, and R. J. Lambert (University of Washington) provided technical assistance. None of these individuals was compensated for their role in the study.