Study concept and design: Mosquera, Avritscher, Pedroza, Evans, Pacheco, Clifton, Zupancic, Tyson.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Mosquera, Avritscher, Samuels, Harris, Pedroza, Navarro, Wootton, Moody, Franzini, Tyson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mosquera, Avritscher, Samuels, Harris, Pedroza, Pacheco, Tyson.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mosquera, Avritscher, Samuels, Pedroza, Evans, Navarro, Wootton, Clifton, Moody, Franzini, Zupancic, Tyson.
Statistical analysis: Mosquera, Avritscher, Pedroza, Franzini, Tyson.
Obtained funding: Mosquera, Evans, Clifton, Zupancic, Tyson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mosquera, Samuels, Navarro, Wootton, Pacheco, Tyson.
Study supervision: Mosquera, Navarro, Moody, Franzini, Tyson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Clifton reported receiving personal fees from Clifton Health Centers LLC. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was supported from the outset by the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and subsequently funded in part by Health Care Innovation Award 1C1MS331044-01-00 from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS); grants and funding from Texas Health and Human Services; and grant 5 UL1TR00371 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. The Texas Health and Human Services provided Medicaid claims and payment data. The CMS provided written comments considered by the authors in preparing the final manuscript.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders/sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the US Department of Health and Human Services or any of its agencies.
Previous Presentations: Preliminary results were presented at: (1) the University of Texas Systems QI Conference; October 2, 2012; San Antonio, Texas; (2) the Pediatric Academic Society Conference; May 1, 2012; Boston, Massachusetts; (3) the Pediatric Academic Society Conference; May 6, 2013; Washington, DC; (4) the University of Texas Medical School Grand Rounds; April 30, 2013; Houston, Texas; (5) the University of Texas McCombs School of Business Innovations in Health Care Conference; April 11, 2013; Austin, Texas; (6) the Hispanic Medical Society; March 27, 2014; Washington, DC; and (7) the American Thoracic Society Conference; May 17, 2014; San Diego, California.
Additional Contributions: We appreciate the start-up funding provided by the University of Texas, Houston, the Texas Health and Human Services, and Memorial Hermann Hospital. We also acknowledge the assistance and advice that we received from John Zerwas, MD (Texas state representative), who authored the rider that provided the state funding for the project, and Thomas Suehs and Kyle Janek, MD (Texas Health and Human Services executive commissioners), during this project. No compensation was received by any of these individuals.