Study concept and design: Kuo, Zhang, Doherty.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kuo, Zhang, Doherty.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kuo, Grainge.
Obtained funding: Kuo, Zhang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mallen, Zhang, Doherty.
Study supervision: Grainge, Zhang, Doherty.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Zhang reported receiving personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo; and nonfinancial support from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, the European League Against Rheumatism, and the British Society of Rheumatology. Dr Doherty reported receiving personal fees from AstraZeneca, Menarini, Nordic Biosciences, Novartis, and Pfizer for work on gout and osteoarthritis advisory boards. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by the National Science Council of Taiwan project 103-2314-B-182A-070-MY2 and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital project CMRPG3A0624. The study methods and infrastructure were supported by the University of Nottingham. Dr Mallen is funded by an Arthritis Research UK clinician scientist award.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The sponsors of the study had no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.