Author Contributions: Dr Pierce had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Pierce, Natarajan, Parker, Greenberg, Carlson, Faerber, Hajek, Jones, Ritenbaugh, Wasserman.
Acquisition of data: Caan, Parker, Kealey, Carlson, Gold, Hollenbach, Karanja, Marshall, Newman, Ritenbaugh, Thomson, Stefanick.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Pierce, Natarajan, Greenberg, Flatt, Rock, Al-Delaimy, Bardwell, Emond, Faerber, Gold, Madlensky, Stefanick.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pierce, Natarajan, Greenberg, Flatt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pierce, Natarajan, Caan, Parker, Greenberg, Flatt, Rock, Kealey, Al-Delaimy, Bardwell, Carlson, Emond, Faerber, Gold, Hajek, Hollenbach, Jones, Karanja, Madlensky, Marshall, Newman, Ritenbaugh, Thomson, Wasserman, Stefanick.
Statistical analysis: Natarajan, Flatt, Emond, Marshall.
Obtained funding: Pierce, Caan, Greenberg, Bardwell, Gold, Hollenbach, Jones, Marshall, Newman, Ritenbaugh, Wasserman, Stefanick.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Flatt, Rock, Kealey, Al-Delaimy, Carlson, Faerber, Hajek, Karanja, Madlensky, Newman.
Study supervision: Pierce, Natarajan, Caan, Parker, Gold, Hollenbach, Jones, Karanja, Newman, Thomson, Stefanick.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
WHEL Study Investigators:Research Team by Clinical Site: WHEL Study Coordinating Center: University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, San Diego (John P. Pierce, PhD, Susan Faerber, BA, Barbara A. Parker, MD, Loki Natarajan, PhD, Cheryl L. Rock, PhD, RD, Vicky A. Newman, MS, RD, Shirley W. Flatt, MS, Sheila Kealey, MPH, Linda Wasserman, MD, PhD, Wayne A. Bardwell, PhD, Lisa Madlensky, PhD); WHEL Study Dietary Counselors: Sheila K. Fisher, Joyce Bertaux, Leslie Barbier, Sharon Bonner, Prudy Galagan, Carrie Gonzales, Kaylene Grove, Pam Herskovitz, Susie Newmiller, Lita Simmons, Susan Wancewicz; WHEL Study Dietary Assessors: Andrea Jackson, Lita Simmons, Denice Murillo, Sophie Levy, Nichole Brumley; Laboratory Analysis: Dennis Heath, MS, Mila Pruitt; Clinical Sites: Center for Health Research–Portland, Portland, Oregon (Njeri Karanja, PhD, Mark U. Rarick, MD, Lucy Fulton, DTR, RD); Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland (Bette J. Caan, DrPH, Lou Fehrenbacher, MD, Sarah Josef, RD); Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California (Marcia L. Stefanick, PhD, Robert Carlson, MD, Charlene Kranz, RD, Gwen D’Antoni, RD, Natalie Ledesma, MS, RD, Monique Schloetter, MS, RD); University of Arizona, Tucson and Phoenix (Cynthia Thomson, PhD, RD, James Warneke, MD, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, PhD, MPH, Tina Green, MS, RD, Emily Nardi, MPH, RD); University of California, Davis (Ellen B. Gold, PhD, Sidney Scudder, MD, Stephanie Burns, Linda Bresnick); University of California, San Diego, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, San Diego (Kathryn A. Hollenbach, PhD, Vicky Jones, MD, Michelle McKinney, Diana Wiggins, RD); University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (Lovell A. Jones, PhD, Richard Hajek, PhD, Richard Theriault, DO, Taylor Tran, RD, LD).
Funding/Support: The WHEL Study was initiated with the support of the Walton Family Foundation and continued with funding from National Cancer Institute grant CA 69375. Some of the data were collected from general clinical research centers (National Institutes of Health grants M01-RR00070, M01-RR00079, and M01-RR00827).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sponsors had no role in the design, protocol development, or conduct of the trial or in data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation.
Additional Contributions: We thank the WHEL Study's data and safety monitoring committee (Brian Henderson, MD, Ross Prentice, PhD, Marion Nestle, MPH, PhD, and Charles Loprinzi, MD) and Sharon Ross, PhD (National Cancer Institute project officer) for their assistance with review of the article. We also acknowledge Kaylene Grove, BS, BA, Christine Hayes, MA, and Hollie Ward, BA, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, UCSD, for their administrative support and assistance with manuscript preparation. Finally, we are especially grateful to our dietary counseling team and WHEL Study participants for their sustained commitment and dedication to this long-term trial.