AuthorContributions: Dr Conway had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Conway, Cnaan, Zaoutis, Grundmeier, Keren.
Acquisition of data: Conway, Cnaan, Henry, Grundmeier, Keren.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Conway, Cnaan, Zaoutis, Keren.
Drafting of the manuscript: Conway, Cnaan, Keren.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Conway, Cnaan, Zaoutis, Henry, Grundmeier, Keren.
Statistical analysis: Conway, Cnaan, Henry, Keren.
Obtained funding: Conway, Zaoutis, Keren.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Henry, Grundmeier, Keren.
Study supervision: Cnaan, Keren.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Conway was supported by a training grant through the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Training Program. This project was supported through a pilot grant from a University of Pennsylvania Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTS) grant. Dr Cnaan is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award U54 RR023567-01. Dr Keren was supported by grant K23 HD043179 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH.
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funding sources had any role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the physicians and staff of the Practice-Based Research Network, especially Marguerite Swietlik, CRNP, and Louis Bell, MD, who facilitated the performance of this study. We thank Chris Bell for research support and data collection and Huaqing Zhao, MSc, The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania Biostatistics and Data Management Core, for statistical support. None of those acknowledged received any compensation for their contributions.