Author Contributions: Drs ter Kuile and van Eijk had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: ter Kuile.
Acquisition of data: ter Kuile, van Eijk, Filler.
Analysis and interpretation of data: ter Kuile, van Eijk, Filler.
Drafting of the manuscript: ter Kuile.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: ter Kuile, van Eijk, Filler.
Statistical analysis: ter Kuile, van Eijk.
Obtained funding: ter Kuile.
Administrative, technical, or material support: ter Kuile, van Eijk.
Study supervision: ter Kuile.
Financial Disclosures: Drs ter Kuile and van Eijk receive financial support or have been employed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which cofunded 4 of 9 trials included in this review. Dr Filler was an author of 1 of the trials reviewed.
Funding/Support: This review was funded by a grant from the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sponsors had no role in review, design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the article.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to the following colleagues for sharing unpublished material or providing additional information to published reports: Kassoum Kayentao, MSc; Monica Parise, MD; Robert Newman, MD; Davidson Hamer, MD; Chris Plowe and Miriam Laufer, MD; and Colin Sutherland, PhD. We thank Penelope Phillips-Howard, PhD, for useful comments on the manuscript. None of the persons listed in the acknowledgment were compensated for their contributions.