In recent years, chronic kidney disease has received increased attention as a leading public health problem.1 The kidney disease burden, measured in terms of prevalence, associated economic costs, and morbidity, is substantial and increasing. In the United States, more than 400 000 individuals have end-stage renal disease (ESRD),2 for which life can be sustained only with renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or kidney transplantation. In a recent population-based study of US residents 45 years and older, 9.5% had a first-degree relative with ESRD.3 It is estimated that by 2015, more than 700 000 individuals in the United States will have ESRD, and more than 107 000 ESRD-related deaths will occur annually.2 Cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD is 10- to 20-fold higher than in the general population and is the leading cause of death.4 Mortality rates for patients with ESRD have shown only modest improvement over the past 2 decades.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 37
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
We have found a strong, more or less consistent, independent, and biologically plausible...
All results at
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.